Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins.
Obesity and Cancer Fact Sheet - National Cancer Institute
Methods Enzymol ; Advanced oxidation protein products as a novel marker of oxidative stress in uremia. Kidney Int ; Measurement of antioxidants in human blood plasma. Anal Biochem ; Plasma antioxidant vitamins levels and lipid peroxidation in breast cancer patients. Iran J Public Health ; Tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. Clin Chim Acta 30; Jin H, Zangar RC. Protein modifications as potential biomarkers in breast cancer.
Biomark Insights ; Oxidative damage markers as possible discriminatory biomarkers in breast carcinoma.
The obese adipose tissue microenvironment in cancer development and progression
Transl Res ; Plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk. J Cell Mol Med ; Plasma protein carbonyls and breast cancer risk in sisters discordant for breast cancer from the New York site of the Breast Cancer Family Registry. Cancer Res ; An investigation into the serum thioredoxin, superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and advanced oxidation protein products in patients with breast cancer.
Ann Surg Oncol ; Carbonyl and oxidative stress in patients with breast cancer--is there a relation to the stage of the disease? Neoplasma ; A meta-analysis of the TFPI2 hyper-methylation frequency and colorectal cancer risk. Biomed Res ; Quantification of methylated markers with a multiplex methylation-specific technology.
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Clin Chem ; Malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, is mutagenic in human cells. J Biol Chem ; Breast cancer staging. American Joint Committee on Cancer.
Top cited articles. Users Online Ahead of print. Current Issue. Oxidative stress in relation to obesity in breast cancer.
Indian J Cancer ; Table 1: Demographic profile of the study subjects Click here to view. Table 2: Oxidant and antioxidant parameters among the study group and control group Click here to view. Table 3: Correlation analysis between oxidative stress markers and indices of obesity in the study group Click here to view.
Credit: Cancer Research UK. One of the strongest links between obesity and cancer is an increased risk of breast and womb cancers in women who are overweight or obese after the menopause, and this relates to higher oestrogen levels. In pre-menopausal women, the ovaries are the main oestrogen-producing cells. But fat cells can make oestrogen too and, after the menopause, when the ovaries stop working, fat becomes the chief source of the hormone. And there is solid evidence showing that being obese leads to higher oestrogen levels in women after the menopause.
Large studies of women have shown a direct relationship between obesity, high oestrogen levels and breast and womb cancers. Professor Martin Wiseman, a leading expert on diet, weight and cancer from the World Cancer Research Fund, is in no doubt that oestrogen made by fat cells is a leading culprit in postmenopausal breast and womb cancer. And uncontrolled cell division is fundamentally what cancer is. Cutting off oestrogen can stop breast cancer developing. The chemical processes going on constantly throughout the body — collectively known as metabolism — are complicated and tightly controlled, relying on a finely tuned web of information flowing between cells and organs.
But the chemical signals produced by fat cells means that obesity can cause a major upset to this balance, and this is thought to be another way it makes cancer more likely. One key hormone that acts as a master-controller of metabolism is insulin.
This flips a switch in your liver and muscles, telling them to use this fat as fuel instead of glucose. And these long-term raised insulin levels could be another way being obese raises the risk of cancer, he says. The big question is the degree to which it plays a role in the increased rates of cancer in obese people — and studies are on-going to find this out. As people become obese, and more fat cells build up in their tissues, specialised immune cells called macrophages are called to the scene, possibly to clear up dead and dying fat cells. But as macrophages carry out their clean up job, they also release a potent cocktail of chemicals called cytokines that summon other cells to help them out.
The number of macrophages in obese fatty tissue can be substantial — they can account for as many as four in 10 cells. This ultimately creates a condition called chronic inflammation — and this is another way that obesity is thought to fuel the development of cancer. The result of inflammation is a cocktail of signals that tell cells to divide, because after injury you need new cells for healing to occur.
The evidence that inflammation is linked to cancer is damning.
How exactly does obesity cause cancer? Three leading theories
And cancers caused by infections are also characterised by chronic inflammation. Being obese affects lots of different aspects of our physiology — hormones, growth signals, and inflammation. It also affects different people in different ways; for example, not everyone who is obese will have abnormal metabolism or chronic inflammation. To make matters more complicated still, oestrogen, insulin, and inflammation are a convoluted tapestry of interwoven threads.
None of them in isolation directly causes cancer, but in obesity they knit together to form a lethal fabric — dampening the delicate systems that balance our bodies with disastrous consequences. For example, both metformin a diabetes drug that affects insulin levels and aspirin which dampens down inflammation are under investigation as possible anti-cancer drugs. Obesity is a leading cause of death from other serious diseases too — diabetes, heart disease and stroke to name a few.
So we urgently need to tackle the obesity crisis head on. As more people become overweight or obese many without even realising it , the number of people dying from related diseases is rocketing. Click here to cancel reply. Diane Melling-Picken May 5, This is a really well written article I particulary like the poster it is an excellent teaching aid.
A January 7, Stuart January 7,
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