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A particularly serious incident was the so-called " Battle of Beverwijk " on 23 March , in which several people were seriously injured and one killed. Arranged football hooligan fights in Poland are known as ustawki ; they became common in Poland since the late 90s. One victim was seriously injured and later died in hospital. Missiles were thrown from the crowd where the referee and players had to be escorted away. Russian hooligans often show an underlying resentment towards Russia's perceived political rivals.
The most prominent groups of hooligans are associated with Belgrade and Serbia 's two main clubs, Red Star Belgrade and Partizan Belgrade. They are known as the Delije "Heroes" and Grobari "Gravediggers" , respectively.
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FK Rad is a less-successful Belgrade club, whose associated hooligans, known locally as " United Force ", have notoriously been involved in many violent incidents. On 19 September a Serbian football hooligan was sentenced to ten years in jail for an attack against a police officer at a Red Star Belgrade — Hajduk Kula game.
Partizan fans threw flares and stones and fought with supporters of Zrinjski Mostar and police. They attacked him and other fans with baseball bats and flares while wearing surgical masks. The hooligans received up to 35 years in prison.
Football hooliganism in Spain arises from three main sources. The first is racism, as some black players have been victims of ethnic slurs. The second source is the strong rivalry between Real Madrid and Barcelona. The crowd threw bottles, mobile phones and other things including a pig's head. In Spain, organized hooligan groups are popularly called grupos ultra.
Since then, authorities have made attempts to bring hooliganism more under control. Many black foreign players have been racially abused, such as at a friendly match between Spain and England, in which black England players such as Shaun Wright-Phillips and Ashley Cole endured monkey chants from Spain supporters.
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Hooligan violence in Spain decreased since the late s due to an alcohol ban in sporting events as well as hooligan laws which attempt fines up to , euros and bans of two years without access to stadiums. The hardcore of Barcelona hooligans subgroups were involved in police operations against organized crime.
In a Rayo Vallecano hooligan was arrested during riots in the November 14 general strike and accused of terrorism. Two Juventus supporters were stabbed one of them was seriously injured but survived after being hospitalized and a Sevilla supporter was hospitalized with head wounds caused by a glass bottle.
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But several other football, bandy and ice hockey clubs have active hooligan followings. In Switzerland, hooligan incidents are rare due to the fact that the stadiums are small and teams are little. Jakob Park to win the Swiss championship with a last-minute goal.
There was similar fighting in the streets that night. According to the Turkish Daily News , hooligan groups are well organised, have their own "leaders", and often consist of organised street fighters. These groups have a "racon" code of conduct , which states that the intention must be to injure rather than kill and that a stab must be made below the waist. Repeat offenders could be fined up to YTL , Leeds complained because home fans jeered while a message of condolence was read for the victims.
The Leeds chairman at the time, Peter Ridsdale , accused Galatasaray of "showing a lack of respect". On 3 June , after the Belgium vs. Turkey match, several riots occurred in the city center of Ghent after a 1—1 draw. Bursaspor were playing to avoid relegation. Bursaspor won 1—0 the but were relegated to Category A after rivals won. One object struck and knocked down an assistant referee. This was described as a warzone. It resulted in 40 deaths and some were injured. The violence started following provocation of the Kayserispor fans in the half time, whose team went to leading by a goal scored in the first half.
Supporters of the two teams threw rocks to each other. Some of the hooligans were also armed with bats and knives. The fleeing crowd caused a stampede in front of the stand exits. The events in the stadium were followed by vandalism in Kayseri and many-days lasting riots in Sivas.
Hooliganism is also an issue in other sports like Basketball and Volleyball in Turkey. On 13 May , a Fenerbahce fan was stabbed to death after the Istanbul derby. From the s, many organised hooligan firms sprang up, with most Football League clubs having at least one known organised hooligan element. Hooliganism was often as its worst when local rivals played each other. Racism became a major factor in hooliganism around the same time, as black players became a regular feature in English league teams from the s.
Black players were frequently targeted with monkey chants, and had bananas thrown at them. Members of far-right groups including the National Front also sprayed racist slogans and distributed racist literature at matches. Sectarian violence has long been a regular factor of crowd violence, as well as offensive chanting, at matches in Scotland between Celtic and Rangers.
As a result of the Heysel Stadium disaster at Brussels , Belgium , in , where Liverpool FC fans rioting led to the death of 39 Juventus fans, English clubs were banned from all European competitions until , with Liverpool the English team present banned for an additional year. While football hooliganism has been a growing concern in some other European countries in recent years, British football fans now tend to have a better reputation abroad.
Although reports of British football hooliganism still surface, the instances now tend to occur at pre-arranged locations including pubs rather than at the matches themselves. Football hooliganism movement in Ukraine started in the s.
The first big fight more than people involving football hooligans was registered in September between Dynamo Kyiv and Spartak Moscow fans in the center of Kiev. The origin of the football hooligan movement in Ukraine started in the mids. On September 5, an important game between Ukraine and Russia 's national football teams was played. Ukrainian hooligans began to unite in "National crews" to resist Russian fans. However, the mass union did not take place due to police intervention and were mainly composed of Ukrainian fans from Kiev and Dnipropetrovsk. In March , several crews united and attacked 80 Belarusian fans after match between Ukraine and Belarus national football teams.
At that exact time hooligans and ultras were separated, due to changes of views on supporting movement. One part decided to dedicate all time at the tribune to create a choreo in Italian style, and the others decided to remain faithful to English style with fighting and the same wear style. First, they stoned small shops and after that threw stones into the synagogue and beat up the head of the synagogue and other believers.
Since clashes between hooligans have occurred mostly outside the city because of the excessive attention of police. During the Euro several leaders of football hooligans came under government pressure. Because of the ban internal conflicts and successes in the international stage Ukrainian hooligans pay attention to foreign fans. A few days before to Kiev about 7, fans arrived from Istanbul. Two days before the match, different parts of Ukrainian capital witnessed the outbreak of numerous conflicts on the streets. Typically the biggest confrontation involving Ukrainian hooligans occurring in domestic competitions.
There are local derbys as: Donetsk derby or Kyiv derby. On 2 November in Montevideo Uruguay , occurred another murder where an Argentina fan was involved. Seeing this, Boca Juniors fans wanted to tear down the fence and invade the pitch, prompting the police to fire shots to disperse them. But this violence was not only among fans, footballers or the police, but also against the referees.
The match was tied on two goals when Cossio annulled a goal of the premises, and the third goal of San Lorenzo de Almagro in the next play worsened the situation. With the time, every big and small football club in Argentina started to have its own corresponding barra brava, and all are violent or prepared for violence.
In Argentina there are the most dangerous organized supporter groups in the world,  and the most powerful of them are the barras bravas of Independiente La barra del Rojo , Boca Juniors and Newell's Old Boys. But this phenomenon suffered a major transformation in the late s. Because of this murder in October , the society notes the existence of this organized groups the barras bravas.
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